Spoken Texts Vs Written Texts

speaking

How do written texts work?

Planned

How do spoken texts work?

Spontaneous

Formal

Informal

Standard

Non-standard

Permanent

Ephemeral

Distant

Close

Delayed

Immediate

Asynchronous

Synchronous

declarative

interrogative

imperative

exclamative

referential

transactional

expressive

phatic / interactional

modal verb

evaluative  adjective

descriptive adjective

adverb of modality

adverb of degree/emphasis

adverb of time/place

adverb of manner

dynamic verb

abstract noun

concrete noun

prepositional phrase / adverbial

noun phrase

adjective phrase

non-finite clause

subordinate clause

relative clause

conditional clause

main clause

syntactic parallelism

metaphor

rhetorical question

connective – complex sentences

turn taking

tag questions

open / closed questions

convergence

false start

ellipsis

contraction

filler / voiced hesitations

supportive minimal vocalisation

discourse marker

hedge

non-fluency feature

topic shift

topic initiation

topic acceptance

self-related comment

other-related comment

formulaic utterances

emphatic stress

overlap

interruption

colloquialism

cliché

idiom

vocative

conjunction – compound sentences

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